There are two phases in the statistical processing of a data set: a part related to descriptive statistics and another related to inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics consists of summarizing the data set (sample) of a research on statistical indicators that allow estimating the degree of centrality, dispersion, position and distribution of frequencies. The descriptive analysis is an important stage in the understanding of a phenomenon, since it allows to study the general tendencies of the data set. Generally, after the descriptive process, the estimation of statistical inference or inferential statistics is made. This consists, from the statistical results of a representative sample of a population, in making generalizations or inductions to population parameters, considering risk and reliability criteria, estimated from the theory of probability. The statistics is very useful in the processes with reasonable decision making according to the statistical analysis. This didactic unit is intended to present a first contact of the problem by defining and interpreting the main concepts of statistics and probability, also presenting some introductory aspects to statistical inference.