Course instructors are responsible for the course content descriptions in English.
The most prevalent nosological entities in clinical practice affecting the endocrine system and nutrition, analyzing their incidence, etiology, pathophysiology, structural lesions, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prognosis, and medical or surgical treatment.
Competencies and learning outcomes
- Understand and recognize the effects, mechanisms, and manifestations of disease on the structure and function of the human body.
- Understand and recognize causative agents and risk factors that determine health status and disease development.
- Comprehend and recognize the effects of growth, development, and aging on the individual and his/her social environment.
- Understand the basics of action, indications, and efficacy of therapeutic interventions based on available scientific evidence.
- Acquire and develop a medical history that contains all the relevant information.
- Perform a physical examination and mental health assessment.
- Be capable of formulating an initial diagnosis and establishing a rational diagnostic strategy.
- Recognize and deal with immediate life-threatening situations and those others requiring immediate attention.
- Establish the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, applying principles based on the best information available and under conditions of clinical safety.
- Indicate the most appropriate therapy for the most prevalent acute and chronic processes, as well as for patients in terminal stages.
- Raise and propose appropriate preventive measures for each clinical situation.
- Acquire appropriate clinical experience in hospitals, clinics, and other health care institutions, under supervision, as well as basic knowledge of patient-centered health management and the appropriate use of tests, medications, and other health system resources.
- Listen attentively, obtaining and synthesizing information relevant to the problems affecting the patient, understanding the content of this information.
- Write case histories and other medical records that are comprehensible to third parties.
- Knowledge and use of the principles of medicine based on the (best) evidence.
- Knowledge of tumor diseases, their diagnosis, and management.
- Recognize, diagnose, and guide management of the principal endocrine system disorders.
- Nutrition disorders.
- Assess the risk/benefit ratio of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
- Understand the indications of biochemical, hematological, immunological, microbiological, anatomopathological, and imaging tests.
- Nutrition and diet therapy.
- Know how to use drugs appropriately.
- Assess the nutritional status and design diets that are appropriate for different circumstances.
Objectives (Learning outcomes)
- 01Define the neuroendocrine regulation of anterior pituitary and hypothalamus
- 02Define the hormones involved in the anterior pituitary function
- 03Define the concept of hypopituitarism
- 04Explaining the clinical manifestations of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency
- 05Replacement Therapy in pituitary hormone deficiency
- 06Define endocrine syndromes resulting from tumors of the anterior pituitary: amenorrhea / galactorrhea; hypogonadism; Cushing's syndrome; gigantism and acromegaly
- 07Medical treatment of prolactin-secreting tumors, thyrotropin-secreting tumors and gigantism / acromegaly
- 08Define the mechanisms of synthesis, release and action of vasopressin
- 09Explain the concept of vasopressin deficiency: diabetes insipidus
- 010Differential diagnosis and treatment of diabetes insipidus
- 011Define associated syndromes to excessive secretion of vasopressin
- 012Differential diagnosis of hyponatremia
- 013Define the treatment of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH)
- 014Describe the anatomy of the pituitary gland and its relationship to adjacent structures; imaging of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, nasal endoscopic surgery of pituitary adenomas and radiotherapy treatment of these tumors
- 015Explain the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
- 016Explain the metabolism of vitamin D
- 017The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia
- 018Define the concepts of hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency (rickets and osteomalacia)
- 019Defining the surgical anatomy of the parathyroid glands
- 020Surgical indications in hyperparathyroidism
- 021Define the main surgical techniques used in the treatment of hyperparathyroidism
- 022Define the major complications in parathyroid surgery and its prevention
- 023Define the mechanisms of secretion, transport and actions of thyroid hormones
- 024Explain the thyroid function tests
- 025Define the concept of thyrotoxicosis
- 026Define the concept of Graves' disease
- 027Explain the concept of toxic multinodular goitre
- 028Define other causes of thyrotoxicosis
- 029List the major complications of thyrotoxicosis: thyrotoxic storm
- 030Treatment of the various causes of thyrotoxicosis
- 031Define the etiology and pathogenesis of hypothyroidism
- 032Explaining the clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism
- 033Differential diagnosis of hipothyroidism
- 034List the complications of hypothyroidism and define the concept of hypothyroid shock
- 035Define the concept of thyroiditis and its main variants: subacute, chronic thyroiditis with transient thyrotoxicosis and Hashimoto
- 036Explain the problems by the emergence of a thyroid nodule
- 037List the different pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the onset of a thyroid nodule.
- 038Knowing how to perform a clinical evaluation of patients with thyroid nodule
- 039Understand and interpret laboratory tests used in patients with thyroid nodule
- 040Suggest a possible reason and diagnostic sequence in patients with thyroid nodule
- 041List the indications for surgical treatment of a thyroid nodule
- 042Knowing the different surgical techniques used in the surgical treatment of a patient with thyroid nodule
- 043List the major complications of thyroid surgery and treatment
- 044Explain the role of oncogenes and suppressor genes in the onset of various thyroid nodules and non medullary thyroid cancers
- 045Explain the chemotherapy of differentiated thyroid cancer
- 046Describe the genetic screening of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma
- 047Define the concept of familial medullary carcinoma
- 048Establish guidelines for chemotherapy and immunotherapy of MTC
- 049Define the concept of thyroid carcinoma and their main types
- 050Show the prognostic factors in the evolution of patients with thyroid carcinoma
- 051Outline the clinical manifestations of patients with thyroid carcinoma
- 052Indicate the various tests used in the diagnosis of a patient with thyroid carcinoma
- 053Knowing the different types of treatment for patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma
- 054Define a protocol for monitoring a patient undergoing thyroid carcinoma
- 055List function of main gut hormones
- 056Describe the syndromes associated with excess secretion of gastrointestinal hormones
- 057Interpret the main laboratory tests used in gastrointestinal physiology
- 058Interpret the main imaging techniques in the diagnosis of a possible syndrome increased secretion of gastrointestinal hormones
- 059Describe the medical treatment of gastroenteropancreatic tumors
- 060Establish the indications for surgical treatment in patients with gastroenteropancreatic tumors
- 061Describe the main surgical techniques used in patients with gastroenteropancreatic tumors
- 062Describe the major complications of surgical treatment and prevention in patients undergoing surgery for gastric and intestinal tumors
- 063Exposing the concept of carcinoid syndrome
- 064Describe the clinical manifestations of a patient with carcinoid syndrome
- 065Establish a diagnostic protocol in patients with suspected carcinoid syndrome
- 066Defining the therapeutic strategies in patients with carcinoid syndrome
- 067Establish the reasons for surgical indication in a patient with carcinoid syndrome
- 068Describe the main surgical techniques used in patients with carcinoid syndrome
- 069Describe the mechanism of biosynthesis and transport of adrenal steroid hormones
- 070Describe the methods of laboratory evaluation of adrenocortical function
- 071Define the concept of primary adrenocortical deficiency (Addison's disease) and its manifestations
- 072Define the concept of adrenal crisis and its manifestations
- 073Define the concept of hipoaldosteronism and its manifestations
- 074Define the concept of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by 21 alpha hydroxylase deficiency and its manifestations
- 075Describe the concept of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I and type II
- 076Describe Cushing syndrome, its aetiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, imaging and treatment
- 077Describe the concept of adrenal carcinoma, its clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, imaging and treatment
- 078Describe the concept of primary aldosteronism, etiology, laboratory findings, diagnostic strategy and treatment
- 079Describe the mechanisms of synthesis, storage and release of catecholamines
- 080Describe the concept of pheochromocytoma, clinical findings, laboratory tests and treatment
- 081List the indications for surgical treatment of adrenal gland
- 082Describe the correct perioperative preparation of a patient to be subjected to an intervention by the adrenal gland
- 083Describe the major surgical procedures on adrenal gland, its results and
- 084Describe the concept of diabetes mellitus, its diagnosis, classification, prevalence, pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations
- 085List the dietary recommendations for patients with diabetes mellitus
- 086Types of insulin, its pharmacodynamics, different treatment regimens and the use of continuous subcutaneous infusion (pumps)
- 087Explain the use of diet and exercise in diabetic patients
- 088Describe treatment with hypoglycemic drugs: insulin sensitizers secretagogues, PPAR receptor agonists incretin mimetic
- 089List the indications for treatment with insulin
- 090Define the concept of ketoacidosis, diagnosis and treatment
- 091Define the concept of hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar syndrome, diagnosis and treatment
- 092Define the concept of hypoglycemia, its clinical manifestations, complications and their prevention and treatment
- 093Define the concept of retinopathy, its screening and treatment
- 094Define the concept of diabetic nephropathy, prevention, early diagnosis and stages of development
- 095Define the concept of diabetic macroangiopathy and its clinical manifestations
- 096Define the concept of diabetic neuropathy, types of neuropathy and medical treatment
- 097Describe the importance of metabolic control in the prevention of late complications of diabetes
- 098Describe the concept of diabetic foot clinical manifestations, surgical and preventative treatment
- 099Describe the mechanisms of transport and metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins
- 0100Describe the concept of hyperlipoproteinemia and its secondary causes
- 0101Describe the treatment of elevated LDL-c: dietary recommendations and drugs, therapeutic objectives of primary and secondary prevention, treatment guidelines
- 0102Describe the treatment of elevated triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol concentrations
- 0103Describe the prevalence of obesity, clinical and social impact, its complications and dietary and medical treatment of obesity
- 0104List the indications for surgical treatment of patients with obesity
- 0105Describe the main surgical techniques used in patients with obesity, outcomes and follow-up protocol of these patients
- 0106Describe the basic nutritional requirements
- 0107Describe methods of assessing nutritional status
- 0108Define the concepts of caloric and protein malnutrition and its manifestations
- 0109Define the concept of enteral and parenteral nutrition
- 0110List the indications for artificial nutrition in surgery
- 0111Describe the main methods of introducing artificial nutrition and its complications
Association between objectives and units
|Week||Teaching units||Directed hours||Shared hours||Autonomous hours||Total hours|
- Fauci, Anthony S. / Harrison, Tinsley Randolph 1900-. "Harrison, principios de medicina interna". Madrid [etc.] McGraw-Hill, Interamericana D.L. 1998.
- Parrilla Paricio, Pascual dir. / Landa García, José Ignacio dir. / Acea Nebril, Benigno coaut. "Cirugia AEC manual de la Asociación Española de Cirujanos". Madrid [etc.] Editorial Médica Panamericana D.L. 2009.
- Pickup, John C. / Williams, Gareth MD. "Textbook of diabetes". Malden (Massachusetts) Blackwell Science 2006.
- Sabiston, David C. 1924- / Townsend, Courtney M. ed. lit. "Tratado de cirugía fundamentos biológicos de la práctica quirúrgica moderna". Amsterdam ; Madrid [etc.] Elsevier cop. 2009.
- Schwartz, Seymour I. 1928- / Brunicardi, F. Charles ed. lit. "Principios de cirugía". México [etc.] McGraw-Hill cop. 2011.
- Williams, Robert Hardin / Melmed, Shlomo ed. lit. "Williams textbook of endocrinology". Philadelphia [etc.] Elsevier Saunders cop. 2011.
- Zollinger, Robert M. 1903-. Zollinger, Robert M. 1903- / Ellison, E. Christopher / Bitans, Marita il. / Smith, Jennifer il. "Atlas a color de procedimientos quirúrgicos". Caracas Amolca 2012.
Methodology and grading
- Case studies: Learning through the analysis of actual or simulated cases in order to interpret and resolve them by employing various alternative solution procedures.
- Cooperative learning: Develop active learning through cooperative working strategies among students and promote shared responsibility to reach group goals.
- Lecture: Pass on knowledge and activate cognitive processes in students, encouraging their participation.
- Problem-based learning: Develop active learning strategies through problem solving that promote thinking, experimentation, and decision making in the student.
- Solving exercises and problems: Exercise, test, and apply previous knowledge through routine repetition.
- 1.-THEORETICAL EXAM: Multiple choice test. 90 questions. For each wrong answer 0.33 will be deducted from the total. The relative value of this test is 90% of the overall evaluation of the subject.
2. PRACTICAL SECTION: Memorandum of practice + Case report: The relative value of this part is 10% of the overall assessment of the course. It is MANDATORY. Approve this part is mandatory). In case the student has suspended the theoretical part and approved the practical part, the practical note will be saved for successive calls.